|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 60-64
Quality of life in some Mansoura University students
Youssef G Youssef1, Nancy A Ahmed2
1 Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Education, Mansoura, Egypt
2 Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura, Egypt
|Date of Submission||31-Dec-2015|
|Date of Acceptance||24-May-2016|
|Date of Web Publication||28-Nov-2016|
Nancy A Ahmed
Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background/aim The progress of any nation depends on the academic achievement and professional development of its young, and for this reason every nation emphasizes on the achievements and development of its students. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the quality of life of some Mansoura University students in the Faculty of Education and the Faculty of Medicine.
Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out at Mansoura University on 150 students by using a questionnaire designed during lectures.
Results We found a significant difference in the quality of life between Malaysian and Egyptian students, as the mean score for Malaysian students was 160.42 (high) and for Egyptians it was 131.94 (good). There was no significant difference in the quality of life between male and female students, as the mean score for males was 134.22 (good) and for females 144.43 (good). There was no significant difference as regards the reaction between nationality and sex on the quality of life between the four groups (Egyptian males, Egyptian females, Malaysian males, and Malaysian females) and their mean scores were 129.32, 133.47, 158, and 160.88 (good, good, high, and high), respectively. There was no significant difference between the students of the Faculty of Education (132.36) and Egyptian students of the Faculty of Medicine (131.52).
Conclusion The quality of life of Malaysian students living in Egypt was better than that of Egyptian students; it did not differ much between male and female students. Moreover, the quality of life was not affected by nationality if sex was taken into consideration. Comparing Egyptian students in both faculties (Medicine and Education) showed no significant difference as regards the quality of life.
Keywords: Egyptian students, Malaysian students, quality of life
|How to cite this article:|
Youssef YG, Ahmed NA. Quality of life in some Mansoura University students. Benha Med J 2016;33:60-4
| Introduction|| |
The development of any nation depends on the academic achievement of its young, and for this reason every nation emphasizes on the achievements and development of its students . It is a multidimensional evaluation of an individual's current life circumstances in the context of the culture in which they live and the values they hold. Quality of life is primarily a subjective sense of well-being encompassing physical, psychological, social, and spiritual dimensions. Objective indicators may supplement or, in the case of individuals unable to subjectively perceive, serve as proxy assessors of quality of life. Quality of life is a subjective matter, which is reflected in a sense of global well-being. Quality of life as a concern grew out of the social indicators movement, which developed in both Scandinavia and the USA in the 1960 s and 1970 s out of a feeling that economic indicators alone could not reflect the quality of life of populations. Over the past 30 years, this has become a fast-growing discipline now fully embraced by governments and public sector agencies worldwide, which seek to measure and compare changes in quality of life within and between communities, cities, regions, and nations . Some aspects of medical school education may have an unintended negative impact on the mental or emotional state of the students. The medical students experience stress and anxiety because of the rigorous academic and psychological pressure, examinations, difficulty in coping, mental tension, helplessness, fear of failure, and excessive work load. All this may lead to a decreased life satisfaction or psychological problems among students. A review of the literature reveals a prevalence of psychiatric issues of depression and anxiety among medical students, specifically in comparison with nonmedical students. Previous studies in Pakistan have shown a higher prevalence of anxiety among medical students. A study found that there is a strong—Saudi culture—negative relation between assertiveness and anxiety; assertiveness plays a vital role in the development of anxiety, and culture supports a nonassertive behavior; specifically females are expected to be polite, nurturing, vulnerable, and nonassertive. Conventionally, the females are expected to look on to others to set up goals or decide for them rather than setting their own. Therefore, when they join the academic institution or join workforce they may face problems because of lack of assertiveness and increased anxiety level. In comparison with education in other fields of study, medical education is recognized as full of stressful events and it is characterized by numerous psychological transformations as well in the medical students. The medical education is intended to generate knowledgeable, proficient, and specialized physicians trained to be concerned for the health of the nation, enhancing medical science, and supporting public health. Through this, it can be speculated that medical school is a vehicle for personal growth, demanding effort and motivation, learning and understanding, health, and well-being regardless of its challenging environment . Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of life in some Mansoura University students in the Faculty of Education and Faculty of Medicine, including Egyptian and Malaysian students.
We hypothesized that the quality of life might be affected by nationality, sex, and faculty among the university students.
| Methods|| |
The present study was cross-sectional in nature.
The study was conducted at the Faculty of Education and the Faculty of Medicine at Mansoura University.
Sample and sampling technique
On the basis of sex, nationality, and college, a total of 150 fourth-year and fifth-year students were selected randomly by using stratified random sampling.
Chosen students were near graduation, and thus had been exposed to the atmosphere in the university for the longest time: 50 fourth-year Egyptian students from the Faculty of Education (42 female and eight males) and 100 fifth-year students (50 Egyptian 50 Malaysian) from the Faculty of Medicine (63 female and 37 males). Their ages ranged between 20 and 26 years, with a mean age of 22.49 years.
Data collection and ethical considerations
Consent to participate was implied by the return of the completed questionnaire. Permission was taken from the heads of the concerned departments. The questionnaire was designed during lectures from September 2013 to March 2014 and completed by respondents voluntarily. They were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. The questionnaire included the following: nationality, name (optional), marital state, offsprings, and age. It consisted of 100 items, with choices varying between 0 and +2, where 0 = No, +2 = Yes, and +1 = To some extent. The scores ranged from 0 to 200, where 0–50 reflected low, 51–100 reflected moderate, 101–150 reflected good, and 150–200 reflected high quality of life. The test was checked for validity and stability by Shokeir (2009) .
The data were coded and fed into the SPSS system Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver. 22. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the anthropometric measurements (International Business Machines—IBM company, Armonk, New York). Data were expressed in the form of mean ± SD and analysis of variance test.
| Results|| |
[Table 1],[Table 2],[Table 3] illustrate a significant difference in the quality of life between Malaysian and Egyptian students (f = 33.852, P = 0.001 and ƞ2 = 18.8%), as the mean score for Malaysians was 160.42 (high) and for Egyptians it was 131.94 (good).
|Table 2 Means and SDs of the groups as regards nationality (Nat) and sex|
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There was no significant difference in the quality of life between males and females (f = 0.532, P = 0.467 and ƞ2 = 0.4%), as the mean score for males was 134.22 (good) and for females it was 144.43 (good). There was no significant difference between the four groups of students (Egyptian males, Egyptian females, Malaysian males, and Malaysian females) as regards the interaction between nationality and sex on the quality of life (f = 0.017, P = 0.895 and ƞ2 = 0.01%), and their mean scores were 129.32 (good), 133.47 (good), 158 (high), and 160.88 (high), respectively.
[Table 4] shows that there was no significant difference as regards the quality of life between the students of the Faculty of Education (132.36) and the Egyptian students of the Faculty of Medicine (131.52) (t = 0.182 and degree of freedom = 98; P = 0.856 (sig > 0.05).
|Table 4 A comparison between Egyptian students in both Faculty of Medicine and Education|
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| Discussion|| |
The cultural context in which quality of life definitions are developed and the ‘norm’ to which they are referenced is a key issue. What is considered ‘the good life’ varies between individuals, and between different societies and cultures. It may be misleading to take a conception of quality of life developed in one cultural context and apply it to other cultures or even within ethnic communities within a given geographic area.
Keith argues that the core dimensions or attributes of quality of life may vary from one culture to another, in which case the search for a general cross-cultural definition of quality of life (which he regards as a psychological concept) may be misguided ; therefore, the questionnaire by Shokeir (2009)  was used in the present study. We found a significant difference in the quality of life between Malaysian and Egyptian students, as the mean score for Malaysians was 160.42 (high) and for Egyptians it was 131.94 (good), which can be attributed to the abundant evidence that political, social, and economic environment affects it and to considerable international variations in social well-being, with developed countries tending to have relatively higher level of social well-being than do developing countries, also it is ‘U shaped’ in age. A number of studies have established that it is relatively high among the young and older age groups, but low among the middle age group (which our study included); in addition, using the Oxford Happiness Inventory as a measure of happiness, only sport/exercise appeared to result in increased happiness  and most Malaysian do exercise but this was in contrast to the findings of Sherina and Kaneson (2003) , who found that Malaysia had the highest rate of emotional disorders (which mainly consists of depression) compared with other races in Malaysia.
There was no significant difference in the quality of life between males and females, as males had a mean score of 134.22 (good) and females had 144.43 (good), which is in line with the findings of Amr et al. (2008) , who stated that these findings may reflect the contemporary changes taking place in the medical schools in Arab countries: there are more female students entering medical schools, plus the social changes in Egypt, where there has been an increase in women's participation in the workforce and, to some extent, in political life. This was in contrast to the findings of Sherina and Kaneson (2003) , who found that the prevalence of depression was higher among female medical students compared with males. The general practice has also found depression to be more common among females than among males. In their study, Galloway et al. (2006)  stated that women having higher levels of social well-being than men is almost universal, and since sex is not, in general, a characteristic that can be selected, it would seem that there is a clear direction of causality. There is no significant difference as regards the reaction between nationality and sex on quality of life between four groups (Egyptian males, Egyptian females, Malaysian males, and Malaysian females) and their mean scores were 129.32, 133.47, 158, and 160.88 levels (good, good, high, and high), respectively, which can be explained by the findings of a study by Galloway et al. (2006) , in which the per capita income was substantially higher in the USA than in New Zealand, but levels of social well-being were found to be almost identical in both countries. This might suggest a threshold level of income beyond which any further increases do not benefit. In the present study, there was no significant difference as regards the quality of life between the students of the Faculty of Education (132.36) and the Egyptian students of the Faculty of Medicine (131.52) (both were good); however, the mean score was slightly higher for the Faculty of Education, which is in contrast to the findings of Sherina and Kaneson (2003) , who found that the prevalence of depression among medical students was high (35.9%). Several other studies have documented a high level of depression and emotional disorders among medical students. Moreover, medical students are of the age when love relationships become increasingly important, but that could be explained by the increasing loads in nonmedical faculties and by the fact that all students are exposed to nearly similar environments.
Similar to the findings of a study by Galloway et al. (2006) , the criticism of social research is the strong use of narrative and anecdotal evidence, plus a reliance on the self-reporting by the participants, in which the subjective perceptions of the participants play the dominant role. In much quality of life research, the issue perhaps is not self-reporting, but how the self-reported data are collected, and whether this should involve more rigorous, theoretically-based measurements and instruments, rather than reliance on a passive ‘yes/no’ response to a prescribed list of statements into which participants have had no input.
| Conclusion|| |
Quality of life for Malaysian students living in Egypt was found to be better than that of Egyptian students, being high for the former and good for the latter. Quality of life for male students did not differ much from female students. Quality of life was not affected by nationality if sex was taken into consideration. In addition, comparing Egyptian students from both faculties (Medicine and Education) showed no significant differences as regards the quality of life.
Lectures on study techniques and time management should be given to students, offering a more balanced education. Moreover, students should be made aware of the life in the faculty. The ultimate aim of this is to help students to understand what is required of them so that they could adapt as quickly as possible.
Much gratitude is paid to Dr. Mohammed Eissa, PhD lecturer in Mental Health Department Faculty of Education, Mansoura University for his efforts in statistical analysis.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Alghamdi NG. Anxiety and assertiveness in females: a comparison of medical and non-medical university students. Mediterr J Soc Sci 2015; 6:84–89.
Galloway S, Bell D, Hamilton C, Scullion A. Quality of life and well-being: measuring the benefits of culture and sport – a literature review. Education Research Programme Research Findings 2006; Series No/12.
Shokeir ZM. Measurement for diagnosing standards of quality of life for normal and abnormal people. 1st ed.Cairo:Egyptian Anglo; 2009.
Sherina MS, Kaneson N. The prevalence of depression among medical students. Malays J Psychiatry 2003; 11:12–17.
Amr M, El Gilany A, El-Hawary A. Does gender predict medical students’ stress in Mansoura, Egypt? Med Educ Online [serial online] 2008; 13:12.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]