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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 113-118

Antenatal screening for hepatitis B virus infection

1 Department of Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt
2 Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt
3 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt
4 Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Shibin Al. Quanater City, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Moataz M Rayan
Kafr Al-Shoubak Village, Al-Qalubia, Shibin Al-Qanater, 13711
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1110-208X.218829

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Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to have a relatively high incidence and prevalence worldwide. In the postvaccination era in developing countries, perinatal vertical transmission remains the most common mode of transmission. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission requires screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) to identify which newborns must be immunized. Aim This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant mothers who were attending the outpatient clinic of the Department of Obstetric at Benha University Hospital for routine antenatal care. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study included 448 pregnant women. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique for HBV was performed for all women and all patients positive for HBsAg were subjected to alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin (total and direct) evaluation, hepatitis B envelope antigen test, and abdominal ultrasonography. Results Out of 448 pregnant women, seven (1.56%) were positive for HBsAg by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test, where alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and bilirubin were normal in six positive cases but high in the seventh positive case, hepatitis B envelope antigen was negative in all seven positive cases, and abdominal ultrasound was normal in six positive cases and showed hepatosplenomegaly in the seventh positive case. There was no significant association between the seroprevalence of HBV infection (HBsAg) in the studied women and their sociodemographic data. No statistically significant difference was seen between HBsAg-positive patients and HBsAg-negative patients in terms of age and duration of marriage, history of blood transfusions, history of hospitalization, history of major operations, history of diabetes mellitus, having a husband who is HBsAg positive, and history of addiction. Conclusion HBV infection is prevalent among pregnant mothers attending our outpatient services. Therefore we recommend screening of all Egyptian pregnant mothers for HBV to prevent neonatal infection by immunoprophylaxis.

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