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Neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral aspects of childhood epilepsy
Amir A Sarhan, Mostafa M Ayouty, Ashraf A Elsharkawy, Dina S Abd Elmagid
January-June 2015, 32(1):13-19
The aim of this study was to declare the frequency of neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and psychiatric comorbidities associated with epilepsy and the relation of these disorders with several variables, including age at onset of epilepsy, duration of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, antiepileptic medications (monotherapy or polytherapy), and seizure frequency.
Patients and methods
This cross-sectional study included 50 epileptic children selected from those regularly attending the Neurology Outpatient Clinic in Mansoura University Children Hospital and already diagnosed with primary epilepsy and maintained on antiepileptic medications. They were subjected to full general and neurological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale (IQ), Child Behavior Checklist, and Developmental Profile-3. Data were analyzed using SPSS program, version 16.
Children with prolonged duration and earlier onset of epilepsy performed worse on Developmental Profile-3 assessment as they showed significantly delayed cognition, in addition to more attention problems and low IQ. Increased frequency associated with delayed cognitive, social, and communication development, low IQ, and attention problems were observed. Moreover, those with polytherapy were more significantly affected as regards cognition, communication, IQ, attention, social problems, thought problems, and anxiety depression. No significant differences were found between effects of sodium valproate and carbamazepine, but a high dose of valproate was associated with higher incidence of low IQ and cognitive and attention problems. Cognition, communication, and attention were more affected in patients with generalized epilepsy in comparison with those with partial epilepsy.
Childhood epilepsy is associated with cognitive deficits, intellectual decline, and behavioral problems, which are multifactorial, such as age of onset, frequency, type of seizure, prolonged seizures, antiepileptic drugs, and duration of epilepsy.
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Role of gamma knife radiosurgery in the management of functioning pituitary adenomas
Mohammad F Elshirbiny, Raef F. A. Hafez, Nabil Ali, Ashraf A Ezzeldien, Mohammad A Kassem
January-June 2015, 32(1):6-12
Historically, the treatment armamentarium for secretory pituitary adenomas included neurosurgery, medical management, fractionated radiotherapy, and, recently, gamma knife surgery (GKS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and role of GKS in the treatment of secretory pituitary adenomas as regards hormonal and adenoma size control. Between January 2010 and January 2014, a prospective analysis of 40 consecutive patients who underwent GKS for secretory pituitary adenomas at the International Medical Center, Cairo, Egypt, was carried out. Eight patients had adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting adenoma, 16 patients had prolactin-secreting adenoma, and 16 had growth hormone-secreting adenoma. In 19 patients, GKS was the secondary treatment to a prior surgery with failure of hormonal control along with medical treatment. In the remaining 21 patients, the secretory pituitary adenomas were not controlled with medical treatment alone. The follow-up period ranged between 12 and 60 months. Hormonal control was achieved with either normalization or a marked decline in abnormal hormone level of more 50%. Radiological tumor size control was carried out with either tumor size stabilization or reduction. Among the 40 patients, 21 had microadenoma of 1 cm
volume or less. Overall, 24 patients (60%) had hormonal control and 38 patients (95%) had tumor size control after GKS. There was a direct correlation between tumor size, prescription radiation dose, and hormonal and size control after GKS. Twenty out of the treated 21 microadenoma cases showed both hormonal and size control. In conclusion, GKS is a safe and effective treatment method for secretory pituitary adenomas that have failed to respond to medical treatment alone or have postsurgical residual tumor, or recurrence, especially microadenomas.
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Prevalence of obesity and overweight in primary school children living in Menoufia governorate, Menouf district
Mohamed H Bahbah, EL-Sayed I Slama, Abd-El Hafiz M Ramadan, Mohamed A Abo Zeed
January-June 2015, 32(1):73-77
Obesity is an excessive accumulation of fat that adversely affects well-being and health. It is a major public health problem that affects nearly 18% of teenagers.
This study was conducted on primary school children in Menouf district to study the prevalence of obesity and overweight and some associated risk factors.
Obesity was more prevalent in children between 6 and 9 years of age, and it is more prevalent in girls than in boys. The incidence of obesity was higher among urban than among rural children, and children attending private schools and of high socioeconomic levels were more obese.
Conclusion and recommendation
Childhood obesity has tripled in the past 30 years. The prevalence in 11 years has increased from 6.5% in 1980 to 19.6% in 2008. There is an urgent need to spread awareness about obesity, its consequences, and ways and means of prevention, especially among children and their families.
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